Nagual - Wikipedia
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Smaller cycles of 13 days the trecena and 20 days the veintena were important components of the Tzolk'in and Haab' cycles, respectively. A different form of calendar was used to track longer periods of time, and for the inscription of calendar dates i. This form, known as the Long Count, is based upon the number of elapsed days since a mythological starting-point. This calendar involved the use of a positional notation system, in which each position signified an increasing multiple of the number of days.
The Maya numeral system was essentially vigesimal i. It should be noted however that the cycles of the Long Count are independent of the solar year.
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Many Maya Long Count inscriptions are supplemented by a Lunar Series, which provides information on the lunar phase and position of the Moon in a half-yearly cycle of lunations. A day Venus cycle was also maintained, which tracked the heliacal risings of Venus as the morning and evening stars. Many events in this cycle were seen as being astrologically inauspicious and baleful, and occasionally warfare was astrologically timed to coincide with stages in this cycle.
Other, less-prevalent or poorly understood cycles, combinations and calendar progressions were also tracked. An day count is attested in a few inscriptions; repeating sets of 9- and day intervals associated with different groups of deities, animals and other significant concepts are also known.
Maya concepts of time With the development of the place-notational Long Count calendar believed to have been inherited from other Mesoamerican culturesthe Maya had an elegant system with which events could be recorded in a linear relationship to one another, and also with respect to the calendar "linear time" itself.
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In theory, this system could readily be extended to delineate any length of time desired, by simply adding to the number of higher-order place markers used and thereby generating an ever-increasing sequence of day-multiples, each day in the sequence uniquely identified by its Long Count number.
In practice, most Maya Long Count inscriptions confine themselves to noting only the first five coefficients in this system a b'ak'tun-countsince this was more than adequate to express any historical or current date 20 b'ak'tuns cover 7, solar years.
Even so, example inscriptions exist which noted or implied lengthier sequences, indicating that the Maya well understood a linear past-present-future conception of time. However, and in common with other Mesoamerican societies, the repetition of the various calendric cycles, the natural cycles of observable phenomena, and the recurrence and renewal of death-rebirth imagery in their mythological traditions were important and pervasive influences upon Maya societies.
This conceptual view, in which the "cyclical nature" of time is highlighted, was a pre-eminent one, and many rituals were concerned with the completion and re-occurrences of various cycles. As the particular calendaric configurations were once again repeated, so too were the "supernatural" influences with which they were associated. Thus it was held that particular calendar configurations had a specific "character" to them, which would influence events on days exhibiting that configuration.
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Divinations could then be made from the auguries associated with a certain configuration, since events taking place on some future date would be subject to the same influences as its corresponding previous cycle dates. Events and ceremonies would be timed to coincide with auspicious dates, and avoid inauspicious ones. A cyclical interpretation is also noted in Maya creation accounts, in which the present world and the humans in it were preceded by other worlds one to five others, depending on the tradition which were fashioned in various forms by the gods, but subsequently destroyed.
The present world also had a tenuous existence, requiring the supplication and offerings of periodic sacrifice to maintain the balance of continuing existence. Similar themes are found in the creation accounts of other Mesoamerican societies. The word tzolk'in is a neologism coined in Yucatec Maya, to mean "count of days" Coe The various names of this calendar as used by Precolumbian Maya peoples are still debated by scholars.
The Aztec calendar equivalent was called Tonalpohualli, in the Nahuatl language. The tzolk'in calendar combines twenty day names with the thirteen numbers of the trecena cycle to produce unique days. The nagual is acquired along with the other characteristics of a person's birth day at birth. Each day is associated with an animal which has strong and weak aspects.
A person born on "The Dog Day" would have both strong and weak 'Dog' aspects. In Nahuatl the word tonalli was used to refer both to a day and to the animal associated with that day.
The nagual is different, where the tonal is the day spirit proper, the nagual is the spirit familiar of the day. It is probable that the tonal represents the daytime aspect and the nagual the nighttime aspect of the tonalli, 'the things of the day'. Because practitioners of powerful magic were normally born on certain days related to animals with a strong or harmful aspect they would often have specific tonals such as the jaguar or puma.
In Aztec mythology the God Tezcatlipoca was the protector of nagualism, because his tonal was the jaguar and he governed the distribution of wealth.Nahual real en san Antonio
In modern rural Mexico, nagual is sometimes synonymous with brujo "wizard": In some indigenous communities the position of nagual is integrated into the religious hierarchy. The community knows who is a nagual, tolerating, fearing and respecting them.