¿Por qué KAPSARC es el edificio más inteligente de Arabia?
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A transition for a more efficient and environmentally correct final use of energy is needed in future in such a way as to diminish the conflicts between development and environment. Different scenarios aiming to provide the ideal routes for development to occur addressing sustainability indicators are studied.
Some typical options for a more sustainable future include improved energy efficiency, more renewable energy and advanced energy technologies. National programs undertaken in Brazil such as those of the ethanol and biodiesel have a proven impact in the search for a sustainable future worldwide and should be further emphasized in future by means of the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol.
The Concept It is known from chemistry that compounds occur in our natural environment. As a result of combined actions such as inner forces volcanoes, earthquakes and solar energy including water and wind erosion these compounds have been concentrated in geological areas, creating "reserves", such as fossil fuel reserves, for example petroleum, coal, methane hydrate, sand oil and natural gas.
In addition, nature has always maintained an equilibrium, although this balance has never actually rigorously existed, between incoming solar energy and the energy used by other forms of existing systems, including life. However, modern anthropogenic action has been breaking this balance, even assuming that primitive humans were somehow part of the previous almost steady-state type of situation.
Humans slowly started modifying their activities, controlling technologies, breaking the equilibrium and ending up by provoking an intensive use of natural resources and negative effects to the environment. It can be seen, that modern man's actions have resulted in an intensive use of natural reserves fossil fuels such as petroleum, coal, native forests, fertile land, fresh water and others leading, chemically, to a series of highly irreversible processes with economic, environmental and thermodynamic significance and even ending up by affecting our quality of life.
The Greenhouse Effect Caused by the Combustion of Fossil Fuels It would be impossible to speak of energy without taking in consideration that it has a dissolvable association with the environment.
The exploration of natural resources for the production and use of energy originates in significant social, environmental and economic impacts. In the case of the exploration of renewable sources of energy hydraulic, biomass, solar and wind and others this occurs due to the extensive areas necessary for large-scale production of energy.
Moreover, the improper use of alternative technology, even under normal conditions of operation, can hold considerable risks for human life and the environment.
The use of fossil fuels and other non-renewable sources of energy and power in large scale for the generation of energy and power in all sectors have also resulted in the emission of billions of tons of carbon to the global environment annually causing serious anomalies in the climate system, land, oceans, sources of water, ecological systems in general, and even in the chemistry of the atmosphere.
Even though, practically all types of energy generation bring unavoidable negative impacts to the environment, energy has become essential in modern society in such a way as to continue providing a means of growth and development and the realization of the continuing higher standards of living and economic well being of the population. There needs to be, however, an increased awareness, towards a more effective form of resource exploration, in such a way as to ensure that energy production can be continued in greater harmony with the natural environment.
Actions such as the use of primary power plants with minor or no impact for the environment using more renewable 1 sourcesthe technological adequacy of current energy systems, and the development of modern and more efficient technologies can be achieved.
In the current world socioeconomic context of development, the adoption of established energy strategies based in models of sustainable development is essential.
It can also be mentioned, that a cultural change in the way in which energy is consumed, looking to provide only for basic necessities and a more intelligent, rational and responsible use of energy, would also contribute to this goal.
The use of energy, by itself, is responsible for more than two thirds of the greenhouse gases emissions-GHG and accounts for about half of all the projects currently approved by the Kyoto Protocol carbon market flexibility mechanisms.
Atmospheric pollution is associated mainly with the combustion of coal and other petroleum derived fuels including natural gas.
The aspects and impacts generated by the burning of gasoline and diesel may be seen in Table 1. The main source inducing to climate change is the change in composition of the atmosphere due to anthropogenic activities.
These anomalies, in principle, result in emissions formed from the intensive use of fuels for energy use, mainly fossil and, in a more local and regional scale, due to the urbanization and intensive use of land. The main uncertainties related to climate change are due to the analysis of the rate in which it is really changing. What appears to be more evident is that these forces will act more intensively in the future.
The parameters most sensitive parameters to quantify for these changes are: During the XX century occurred an accelerated increase in the concentration of greenhouse gases - GHG in the atmosphere, altering abruptly its chemical composition. Large scale direct anthropogenic impacts on the planet's surface are also a result of changes in land use that occur due to urbanization and bad agricultural practices.
Such impacts, even though they have a local coverage, they are more significant where people live and work. Large scale deforestation and desertification in some regions of the planet are two of the most significant influences for local climate changes and also global warming.
The increase in surface temperature of 0. The implementation of programs that focus on supportive research and technological development are therefore necessary in the various aspects related to environment and climate change.
Brazil and World Analyzing the main macro-economic indicators during the last 34 years we may affirm that Brazilian economy grew there was an increase in the Gross Domestic Product-GDPas a result of the expansion of the energy sector from the primary production, energy supply to the final consumption, and investments. During the building of this development the primary principles applied to its design were those of bio-climate and passive solar energy systems, and it corresponds to a habitation area belonging to a lower-middle socioeconomic level.
The land of house in study has a surface of 90 m2; the construction is of The draft datum planes are; Plan site view Figure 3Architectural view of lower floor and upper floor Figures 4 and 5 and a perspective view of the whole Figure 6. Architectural view of lower floor. The land of house in study has an area of m2, the construction is of The draft datum planes are; Plan site view Figure 7Architectural view of lower floor and upper floor Figures 8 and 9 and a perspective view of the whole Figure Architectural view of upper floor Figure Perspective view of the whole.
Encontro de Energia no Meio Rural - Energy, climate change and the opportunity for liquid biofuels
In both cases, the roofs are made with concrete slab lightened with mud block of 15 cm of thickness and skate concrete of 5 cm, giving a total of 20 cm. Case A is located at Azimuth orientation from due south for the placement of solar panels is The idea is to evaluate the potential of harnessing of a solar energy systems, through of substituting the entirety of electric consumption of these homes with the energy generated for a solar panels system, taking into account the average monthly consumption of electricity in households in the study area.
- Sorpréndete con KAPSARC, el edificio más inteligente de Arabia Saudita
Solar radiation measured in the case studied area. The stations have pyranometers, instruments used to measure very precisely the incident solar radiation on the Earth's surface, they are sensors designed to measure the flux density of solar radiation kilowatts per square meter in the range of degrees. The position of these two stations is observed in Figure 2 Marked as: The North station in Escobedo is in the Santa Luz development, and the Northwest station is in the neighborhood of St.
The measurements are shown in Figure As can be observed, the behavior of the radiation in these two stations is very similar, however northwest station in front of the mountain of Topo Chico receives more radiation in the summer than North station behind the same mountain. The amounts of monthly solar radiation measured for both stations, as well as their averages, are shown in Table 2. Measured Solar Radiation for station and average. To determine the consumption of the average homes in the development Cases A and Ba survey was carried out which obtained the average monthly electrical expenses in two houses of each study area.
Taking as a base the levels of consumption reported in the electrical utility's invoices, the average consumption per month in the year is presented in Table 3. Average consumption of electrical energy for each one home Photovoltaic panels, calculation of energy supplied.
When working with low power photovoltaic systems, as is the case in homes, one useful concept when working with solar paneling is the unit known as Peak Potency or Peak Watt WP Hermosillo, STC is a measurement standard that allows the comparison of different panels from different manufacturers under the same testing conditions Style, The energy supplied by the photovoltaic panels will be determined as a function of the number of panels proposed and the availability of solar radiation as measured by both stations.
Considering also the efficiency of the paneling previously mentioned Hermosillo, op. The losses in the photovoltaic system will be calculated via equation 2. The photovoltaic panel proposed in this study are Polycrys-talline with a width of 0. The costs considered for the system components were: Does not include labor costs depends on place of installation as well as height, access conditions, among others.
In the dictionary of the Spanish language of Royal Spanish Academy Rae, the amortization term means: In the present study, the evaluation was carried out determining the number of years that were necessary to recover or compensate the initial investment in the solar paneling system, taking into account the following considerations: Under this plan, the system is directly connected to the electric power company's grid not requiring batteries to store the excess energy and two meters are placed, one to quantify how much energy is consumed from the grid and needs to be paid to the electric power company, and another to quantify the energy that is supplied to the grid or sold to the electric power company CFE, op.
The calculations considered that the price of the Watts-hr sold is equal to the price of the Watts-hr bought. In this scheme, the photovoltaic system includes panels and an inverter. Using the equation 3.
Using the equation 4which was obtained considering the influx of money as an investment that generates interest as time goes by James, ; Ochoa, This is both for the initial investment as it is for the sum of money influx discounted from the initial investment. Results The results of calculating the number of years until recouping required to recover the costs of installing photovoltaic panels through the saving of electricity generated by the same, are shown in Table 4 for Context aTable 5 for Context band Table 6 in Context c.
The maximum capacity cannot exceed 10kW for users under residential tariffs and 30 kW for those under general low tension tariffs". Therefore the present analysis is made within the limits of the Interconnection Contract. From a survey on the payment invoices to the electric power company generated by the consumption in these homes, we can establish that the electrical energy paid was 0.
These amounts correspond to the application of the corresponding tariff to the appropriate consumption levels generated by these homes, including the discount for Government subsidies, which reflect usage customs and climate among other factors. Thus, from the results we can establish that: On the other hand, the tables generated based on the results of the study are useful to evaluate installation of photovoltaic paneling under other conditions of consumption, as long as they are found within or close to the zone of influence in the monitoring stations that were used to measure solar radiation.