CHURCH FATHERS: Church History, Book V (Eusebius)
Eusebius presents the history of the Church from the apostles to his own time, with special regard to the following points: 1. the successions of. THE ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY OF EUSEBIUS PAMPHILUS BISHOP OF comer, on account of the date at which he appeared among men, in the flesh. ce, the Ecclesiastical History (HE) charts, with extensive quotations from not dated in the Hendrickson edition, but apparently first published in
Eusebius added the sixth book after the death of Pamphilus. We possess only a Latin translation of the first book, made by Rufinus ; A treatise against Hierocles a Roman governorin which Eusebius combated the former's glorification of Apollonius of Tyana in a work entitled A Truth-loving Discourse Greek: Philalethes logos ; in spite of manuscript attribution to Eusebius, however, it has been argued by Thomas Hagg  and more recently, Aaron Johnson  that this treatise " Against Hierocles " was written by someone other than Eusebius of Caesarea.
Praeparatio evangelica Preparation for the Gospelcommonly known by its Latin title, which attempts to prove the excellence of Christianity over every pagan religion and philosophy. The Praeparatio consists of fifteen books which have been completely preserved. Eusebius considered it an introduction to Christianity for pagans. But its value for many later readers is more because Eusebius studded this work with so many lively fragments from historians and philosophers which are nowhere else preserved.
Here alone is preserved a summary of the writings of the Phoenician priest Sanchuniathon of which the accuracy has been shown by the mythological accounts found on the Ugaritic tables, here alone is the account from Diodorus Siculus 's sixth book of Euhemerus ' wondrous voyage to the island of Panchaea where Euhemerus purports to have found his true history of the gods, and here almost alone is preserved writings of the neo-Platonist philosopher Atticus along with so much else.
Demonstratio evangelica Proof of the Gospel is closely connected to the Praeparatio and comprised originally twenty books of which ten have been completely preserved as well as a fragment of the fifteenth. Here Eusebius treats of the person of Jesus Christ. The work was probably finished before ; Another work which originated in the time of the persecution, entitled Prophetic Extracts Eclogae propheticae.
It discusses in four books the Messianic texts of Scripture. The work is merely the surviving portion books 6—9 of the General elementary introduction to the Christian faith, now lost. The fragments given as the Commentary on Luke in the PG have been claimed to derive from the missing tenth book of the General Elementary Introduction see D.
Wallace-Hadrill ; however, Aaron Johnson has argued that they cannot be associated with this work. It treats of the incarnation of the Divine Logosand its contents are in many cases identical with the Demonstratio evangelica. Only fragments are preserved in Greek, but a complete Syriac translation of the Theophania survives in an early 5th-century manuscript.
Samuel Lee, the editor and translator of the Syriac Theophania thought that the work must have been written "after the general peace restored to the Church by Constantine, and before either the 'Praeparatio,' or the 'Demonstratio Evengelica,' was written. Others have suggested a date as late as A number of writings, belonging in this category, have been entirely lost. Exegetical and miscellaneous works[ edit ] All of the exegetical works of Eusebius have suffered damage in transmission.
The majority of them are known to us only from long portions quoted in Byzantine catena-commentaries. However these portions are very extensive. An enormous Commentary on the Psalms. A commentary on Isaiahdiscovered more or less complete in a manuscript in Florence early in the 20th century and published 50 years later. Small fragments of commentaries on Romans and 1 Corinthians.
Eusebius also wrote a work Quaestiones ad Stephanum et Marinum, "On the Differences of the Gospels" including solutions. This was written for the purpose of harmonizing the contradictions in the reports of the different Evangelists.
This work was recently translated into the English language by David J. Miller and Adam C. Gospel Problems and Solutions. A work on the Greek equivalents of Hebrew Gentilic nouns; A description of old Judea with an account of the loss of the ten tribes; A plan of Jerusalem and the Temple of Solomon. These three treatises have been lost. The addresses and sermons of Eusebius are mostly lost, but some have been preserved, e.
Most of Eusebius' letters are lost. His letters to Carpianus and Flacillus exist complete. Fragments of a letter to the empress Constantia also exists. Doctrine[ edit ] Eusebius is fairly unusual in his preteristor fulfilled eschatological view. Now there were among the Hebrews three outstanding offices of dignity, which made the nation famous, firstly the kingship, secondly that of prophet, and lastly the high priesthood. The prophecies said that the abolition and complete destruction of all these three together would be the sign of the presence of the Christ.
And that the proofs that the times had come, would lie in the ceasing of the Mosaic worship, the desolation of Jerusalem and its Temple, and the subjection of the whole Jewish race to its enemies The holy oracles foretold that all these changes, which had not been made in the days of the prophets of old, would take place at the coming of the Christ, which I will presently shew to have been fulfilled as never before in accordance with the predictions.
Like Origen, he started from the fundamental thought of the absolute sovereignty monarchia of God. God is the cause of all beings. But he is not merely a cause; in him everything good is included, from him all life originates, and he is the source of all virtue.
God sent Christ into the world that it may partake of the blessings included in the essence of God. Christ is God and is a ray of the eternal light; but the figure of the ray is so limited by Eusebius that he expressly distinguishes the Son as distinct from Father as a ray is also distinct from its source the sun. The Logos acts as the organ or instrument of God, the creator of life, the principle of every revelation of God, who in his absoluteness and transcendence is enthroned above and isolated from all the world.
Eusebius, with most of the Christian tradition, assumed God was immutable. Therefore, to Eusebius's mind, the Logos must possess divinity by participation and not originally like the Fatherso that he can change, unlike God the Father. Thus he assumed a human body without altering the immutable divine Father. No point of this doctrine is original with Eusebius, all is traceable to his teacher Origen.
After nearly being excommunicated due to charges of heresy by Alexander of Alexandria, Eusebius submitted and agreed to the Nicene Creed at the First Council of Nicea in Eusebius said, "The Creator of all things has impressed a natural law upon the soul of every man, as an assistant and ally in his conduct, pointing out to him the right way by this law; but, by the free liberty with which he is endowed, making the choice of what is best worthy of praise and acceptance, because he has acted rightly, not by force, but from his own free-will, when he had it in his power to act otherwise, As, again, making him who chooses what is worst, deserving of blame and punishment, as having by his own motion neglected the natural law, and becoming the origin and fountain of wickedness, and misusing himself, not from any extraneous necessity, but from free will and judgment.
The fault is in him who chooses, not in God. For God has not made nature or the substance of the soul bad; for he who is good can make nothing but what is good. Everything is good which is according to nature. Every rational soul has naturally a good free-will, formed for the choice of what is good.
But when a man acts wrongly, nature is not to be blamed; for what is wrong, takes place not according to nature, but contrary to nature, it being the work of choice, and not of nature". A letter Eusebius is supposed to have written to Constantine 's daughter Constantiarefusing to fulfill her request for images of Christ, was quoted in the decrees now lost of the Iconoclast Council of Hieria inand later quoted in part in the rebuttal of the Hieria decrees in the Second Council of Nicaea ofnow the only source from which some of the text is known.
The authenticity, or authorship of the letter remain uncertain. I judge it more suitable to shun and avoid the account of these things, as I said at the beginning. Other critics of Eusebius' work cite the panegyrical tone of the Vita, plus the omission of internal Christian conflicts in the Canones, as reasons to interpret his writing with caution.
Eusebius History of the Christian Church
With reference to Gibbon's comments, Joseph Barber Lightfoot late 19th century theologian and former Bishop of Durham pointed out  that Eusebius' statements indicate his honesty in stating what he was not going to discuss, and also his limitations as a historian in not including such material.
He also discusses the question of accuracy. This shows itself in diverse ways. He is not always to be trusted in his discrimination of genuine and spurious documents.
Hollerich assistant professor at the Jesuit Santa Clara University, California replies to Burckhardt's criticism of Eusebius, that "Eusebius has been an inviting target for students of the Constantinian era. At one time or another they have characterized him as a political propagandist, a good courtier, the shrewd and worldly adviser of the Emperor Constantine, the great publicist of the first Christian emperor, the first in a long succession of ecclesiastical politicians, the herald of Byzantinisma political theologian, a political metaphysician, and a caesaropapist.
It is obvious that these are not, in the main, neutral descriptions. Much traditional scholarship, sometimes with barely suppressed disdain, has regarded Eusebius as one who risked his orthodoxy and perhaps his character because of his zeal for the Constantinian establishment.
While many have shared Burckhardt's assessment, particularly with reference to the Life of Constantine, others, while not pretending to extol his merits, have acknowledged the irreplaceable value of his works which may principally reside in the copious quotations that they contain from other sources, often lost.
Bibliography[ edit ] Eusebius of Caesarea. Historia Ecclesiastica Church History first seven books ca. Eusebiou tou Pamphilou, episkopou tes en Palaistine Kaisareias ta euriskomena panta in Greek. Accessed 4 November McGiffert, Arthur Cushman, trans. Edited by Philip Schaff and Henry Wace. Christian Literature Publishing Co. Revised and edited for New Advent by Kevin Knight. Accessed 28 September Contra Hieroclem Against Hierocles. Leipzig and Berlin, Online at the Internet Archive.
Accessed 29 January The Onomasticon of Eusebius Pamphili: Compared with the version of Jerome and annotated. Catholic University of America Press, Palestine in the Fourth Century.
Accessed June 9, Accessed September 28, Praeparatio Evangelica Preparation for the Gospel. Demonstratio Evangelica Demonstration of the Gospel. Laudes Constantini In Praise of Constantine Online at Khazar Skeptik. Richardson, Ernest Cushing, trans. And again, after other remarks, he says: If they will say that even the Lord did these things in mere appearance, we will refer them to the prophetic writings, and show from them that all things were beforehand spoken of him in this manner, and were strictly fulfilled; and that he alone is the Son of God.
Wherefore his true disciplesreceiving grace from him, perform such works in his Name for the benefit of other men, as each has received the gift from him.
For some of them drive out demons effectually and trulyso that those who have been cleansed from evil spirits frequently believe and unite with the Church. Others have a foreknowledge of future events, and visions, and prophetic revelations. Still others heal the sick by the laying on of handsand restore them to health.
And, as we have said, even dead persons have been raised, and remained with us many years. But why should we say more? It is not possible to recount the number of gifts which the Churchthroughout all the world, has received from God in the name of Jesus Christwho was crucified under Pontius Pilateand exercises every day for the benefit of the heathennever deceiving any nor doing it for money. For as she has received freely from Godfreely also does she minister.
And in another place the same author writes: As also we hear that many brethren in the Church possess prophetic giftsand speak, through the Spiritwith all kinds of tongues, and bring to light the secret things of men for their good, and declare the mysteries of God. So much in regard to the fact that various gifts remained among those who were worthy even until that time. Matthew published his Gospel among the Hebrews in their own language, while Peter and Paul were preaching and founding the church in Rome.
After their departure Mark, the disciple and interpreter of Peter, also transmitted to us in writing those things which Peter had preached; and Luke, the attendant of Paulrecorded in a book the Gospel which Paul had declared. Afterwards John, the disciple of the Lord, who also reclined on his bosom, published his Gospelwhile staying at Ephesus in Asia. He states these things in the third book of his above-mentioned work.
In the fifth book he speaks as follows concerning the Apocalypse of John, and the number of the name of Antichrist: As these things are so, and this number is found in all the approved and ancient copies, and those who saw John face to face confirm it, and reason teaches us that the number of the name of the beast, according to the mode of calculation among the Greeks, appears in its letters And further on he says concerning the same: We are not bold enough to speak confidently of the name of Antichrist.
For if it were necessary that his name should be declared clearly at the present time, it would have been announced by him who saw the revelation. For it was seen, not long ago, but almost in our generation, toward the end of the reign of Domitian. He states these things concerning the Apocalypse in the work referred to. He also mentions the first Epistle of John, taking many proofs from it, and likewise the first Epistle of Peter.
And he not only knowsbut also receives, The Shepherd, writing as follows: Well did the Scripture speak, saying, 'First of all believe that God is one, who has created and completed all things,' etc. And he uses almost the precise words of the Wisdom of Solomon, saying: The vision of God produces immortalitybut immortality renders us near to God.
Review of Eusebius' Ecclesiastical History
He mentions also the memoirs of a certain apostolic presbyterwhose name he passes by in silence, and gives his expositions of the sacred Scriptures.
And he refers to Justin the Martyr, and to Ignatiususing testimonies also from their writings.
Moreover, he promises to refute Marcion from his own writings, in a special work. Concerning the translation of the inspired Scriptures by the Seventy, hear the very words which he writes: God in truth became man, and the Lord himself saved us, giving the sign of the virgin; but not as some say, who now venture to translate the Scripture'Behold, a young woman shall conceive and bring forth a son,' as Theodotion of Ephesus and Aquila of Pontusboth of them Jewish proselytes, interpreted; following whom, the Ebionites say that he was begotten by Joseph.
Shortly after he adds: For before the Romans had established their empire, while the Macedonians were still holding Asia, Ptolemy, the son of Lagus, being desirous of adorning the library which he had founded in Alexandria with the meritorious writings of all menrequested the people of Jerusalem to have their Scriptures translated into the Greek language.
But, as they were then subject to the Macedonians, they sent to Ptolemy seventy elders, who were the most skilled among them in the Scriptures and in both languages.
Thus God accomplished his purpose. But wishing to try them individually, as he feared lest, by taking counsel together, they might conceal the truth of the Scriptures by their interpretation, he separated them from one another, and commanded all of them to write the same translation. He did this for all the books. But when they came together in the presence of Ptolemy, and compared their several translations, God was glorifiedand the Scriptures were recognized as truly divine.
For all of them had rendered the same things in the same words and with the same names from beginning to end, so that the heathen perceived that the Scriptures had been translated by the inspiration of God. And this was nothing wonderful for God to do, who, in the captivity of the people under Nebuchadnezzarwhen the Scriptures had been destroyed, and the Jews had returned to their own country after seventy years, afterwards, in the time of Artaxerxes, king of the Persiansinspired Ezra the priestof the tribe of Levi, to relate all the words of the former prophetsand to restore to the people the legislation of Moses.
The Bishops under Commodus. After Antoninus had been emperor for nineteen years, Commodus received the government. In his first year Julian became bishop of the Alexandrian churches, after Agripinnus had held the office for twelve years. A school of sacred learning, which continues to our day, was established there in ancient times, and as we have been informed, was managed by men of great ability and zeal for divine things. They say that he displayed such zeal for the divine Word, that he was appointed as a herald of the Gospel of Christ to the nations in the East, and was sent as far as India.
For indeed there were still many evangelists of the Word who sought earnestly to use their inspired zealafter the examples of the apostlesfor the increase and building up of the Divine Word. It is reported that among persons there who knew of Christhe found the Gospel according to Matthew, which had anticipated his own arrival.
For Bartholomew, one of the apostleshad preached to them, and left with them the writing of Matthew in the Hebrew language, which they had preserved till that time. At this time Clement, being trained with him in the divine Scriptures at Alexandria, became well known. He had the same name as the one who anciently was at the head of the Roman church, and who was a disciple of the apostles. It seems to me that he alludes to the same person also in the first book of his Stromata, when, referring to the more conspicuous of the successors of the apostles whom he had met, he says: This work is not a writing artfully constructed for display; but my notes are stored up for old age, as a remedy against forgetfulness; an image without art, and a rough sketch of those powerful and animated words which it was my privilege to hear, as well as of blessed and truly remarkable men.
There were others in the East, one of them an Assyrian, the other a Hebrew in Palestine. But when I met with the last, — in ability truly he was first — having hunted him out in his concealment in EgyptI found rest. These men, preserving the true tradition of the blessed doctrine, directly from the holy apostlesPeter and James and John and Paulthe son receiving it from the father but few were like the fathershave come by God's will even to us to deposit those ancestral and apostolic seeds.
The Bishops in Jerusalem. At this time Narcissus was the bishop of the church at Jerusalem, and he is celebrated by many to this day. He was the fifteenth in succession from the siege of the Jews under Adrian.
We have shown that from that time first the church in Jerusalem was composed of Gentilesafter those of the circumcisionand that Marcus was the first Gentile bishop that presided over them.
After him the succession in the episcopate was: Rhodo and his Account of the Dissension of Marcion. At this time Rhodo, a native of Asia, who had been instructed, as he himself states, by Tatianwith whom we have already become acquainted, having written several books, published among the rest one against the heresy of Marcion. He says that this heresy was divided in his time into various opinions; and while describing those who occasioned the division, he refutes accurately the falsehoods devised by each of them.
But hear what he writes: Therefore also they disagree among themselves, maintaining an inconsistent opinion. For Apellesone of the herd, priding himself on his manner of life and his age, acknowledges one principle, but says that the prophecies are from an opposing spirit, being led to this view by the responses of a maiden by name Philumene, who was possessed by a demon.
But others, among whom are Potitus and Basilicus, hold to two principles, as does the mariner Marcion himself. These following the wolf of Pontusand, like him, unable to fathom the division of things, became reckless, and without giving any proof asserted two principles. Others, again, drifting into a worse errorconsider that there are not only two, but three natures. Of these, Syneros is the leader and chief, as those who defend his teaching say.
The same author writes that he engaged in conversation with Apelles. He speaks as follows: For the old man Apelleswhen conversing with us, was refuted in many things which he spoke falsely ; whence also he said that it was not at all necessary to examine one's doctrine, but that each one should continue to hold what he believed.
For he asserted that those who trusted in the Crucified would be saved, if only they were found doing good works. But as we have said before, his opinion concerning God was the most obscure of all.
For he spoke of one principle, as also our doctrine does. Then, after stating fully his own opinion, he adds: When I said to him, Tell me how you know this or how can you assert that there is one principle, he replied that the prophecies refuted themselves, because they have said nothing true ; for they are inconsistent, and false, and self-contradictory.
But how there is one principle he said that he did not knowbut that he was thus persuaded. As I then adjured him to speak the truthhe swore that he did so when he said that he did not know how there is one unbegotten Godbut that he believed it. Thereupon I laughed and reproved him because, though calling himself a teacher, he knew not how to confirm what he taught. In the same work, addressing Callistio, the same writer acknowledges that he had been instructed at Rome by Tatian.
And he says that a book of Problems had been prepared by Tatianin which he promised to explain the obscure and hidden parts of the divine Scriptures. Rhodo himself promises to give in a work of his own solutions of Tatian 's problems. But this Apelles wrote many things, in an impious manner, of the law of Mosesblaspheming the divine words in many of his works, being, as it seemed, very zealous for their refutation and overthrow.
So much concerning these. The False Prophets of the Phrygians. The enemy of God's Church, who is emphatically a hater of good and a lover of eviland leaves untried no manner of craft against men, was again active in causing strange heresies to spring up against the Church. For some personslike venomous reptiles, crawled over Asia and Phrygia, boasting that Montanus was the Paraclete, and that the women that followed him, Priscilla and Maximilla, were prophetesses of Montanus.
The Schism of Blastus at Rome. Others, of whom Florinus was chief, flourished at Rome. He fell from the presbyterate of the Churchand Blastus was involved in a similar fall.
Eusebius - Wikipedia
They also drew away many of the Church to their opinion, each striving to introduce his own innovations in respect to the truth. The Circumstances related of Montanus and his False Prophets. Against the so-called Phrygian heresythe power which always contends for the truth raised up a strong and invincible weapon, Apolinarius of Hierapolis, whom we have mentioned before, and with him many other men of ability, by whom abundant material for our history has been left.
A certain one of these, in the beginning of his work against them, first intimates that he had contended with them in oral controversies. He commences his work in this manner: Having for a very long and sufficient time, O beloved Avircius Marcellus, been urged by you to write a treatise against the heresy of those who are called after Miltiades, I have hesitated till the present time, not through lack of ability to refute the falsehood or bear testimony for the truthbut from fear and apprehension that I might seem to some to be making additions to the doctrines or precepts of the Gospel of the New Testamentwhich it is impossible for one who has chosen to live according to the Gospeleither to increase or to diminish.
But being recently in Ancyra in Galatia, I found the church there greatly agitated by this novelty, not prophecyas they call it, but rather false prophecyas will be shown. Therefore, to the best of our ability, with the Lord's help, we disputed in the church many days concerning these and other matters separately brought forward by them, so that the church rejoiced and was strengthened in the truthand those of the opposite side were for the time confounded, and the adversaries were grieved.
The presbyters in the place, our fellow presbyter Zoticus of Otrous also being present, requested us to leave a record of what had been said against the opposers of the truth. We did not do this, but we promised to write it out as soon as the Lord permitted us, and to send it to them speedily. Having said this with other things, in the beginning of his work, he proceeds to state the cause of the above-mentioned heresy as follows: Their opposition and their recent heresy which has separated them from the Church arose on the following account.
There is said to be a certain village called Ardabau in that part of Mysia, which borders upon Phrygia. There first, they say, when Gratus was proconsul of Asia, a recent convert, Montanus by name, through his unquenchable desire for leadership, gave the adversary opportunity against him.
And he became beside himself, and being suddenly in a sort of frenzy and ecstasyhe raved, and began to babble and utter strange things, prophesying in a manner contrary to the constant custom of the Church handed down by tradition from the beginning.
Some of those who heard his spurious utterances at that time were indignant, and they rebuked him as one that was possessed, and that was under the control of a demonand was led by a deceitful spirit, and was distracting the multitude; and they forbade him to talk, remembering the distinction drawn by the Lord and his warning to guard watchfully against the coming of false prophets. In consequence of this, he could no longer be held in check, so as to keep silence.
Thus by artifice, or rather by such a system of wicked craft, the devildevising destruction for the disobedient, and being unworthily honored by them, secretly excited and inflamed their understandings which had already become estranged from the true faith.
And he stirred up besides two womenand filled them with the false spirit, so that they talked wildly and unreasonably and strangely, like the person already mentioned. And the spirit pronounced them blessed as they rejoiced and gloried in him, and puffed them up by the magnitude of his promises. But sometimes he rebuked them openly in a wise and faithful manner, that he might seem to be a reprover.
But those of the Phrygians that were deceived were few in number. And the arrogant spirit taught them to revile the entire universal Church under heaven, because the spirit of false prophecy received neither honor from it nor entrance into it. For the faithful in Asia met often in many places throughout Asia to consider this matter, and examined the novel utterances and pronounced them profane, and rejected the heresyand thus these persons were expelled from the Church and debarred from communion.
Having related these things at the outset, and continued the refutation of their delusion through his entire work, in the second book he speaks as follows of their end: Who is there, O friends, of these who began to talk, from Montanus and the women down, that was persecuted by the Jewsor slain by lawless men?Church History by Eusebius Audio Book
Or has any of them been seized and crucified for the Name? Or has one of these women ever been scourged in the synagogues of the Jewsor stoned? But by another kind of death Montanus and Maximilla are said to have died. For the report is that, incited by the spirit of frenzy, they both hung themselves; not at the same time, but at the time which common report gives for the death of each.
And thus they died, and ended their lives like the traitor Judas. So also, as general report says, that remarkable person, the first steward, as it were, of their so-called prophecyone Theodotus — who, as if at sometime taken up and received into heaven, fell into trances, and entrusted himself to the deceitful spirit — was pitched like a quoit, and died miserably.
They say that these things happened in this manner. But as we did not see them, O friend, we do not pretend to know. Perhaps in such a manner, perhaps not, Montanus and Theodotus and the above-mentioned woman died.
He says again in the same book that the holy bishops of that time attempted to refute the spirit in Maximilla, but were prevented by others who plainly co-operated with the spirit. And let not the spirit, in the same work of Asterius Urbanus, say through Maximilla, 'I am driven away from the sheep like a wolf.
I am not a wolf. I am word and spirit and power. And by the spirit let him compel those to confess him who were then present for the purpose of proving and reasoning with the talkative spirit, — those eminent men and bishopsZoticus, from the village Comana, and Julian, from Apamea, whose mouths the followers of Themiso muzzled, refusing to permit the false and seductive spirit to be refuted by them.
Again in the same work, after saying other things in refutation of the false prophecies of Maximilla, he indicates the time when he wrote these accounts, and mentions her predictions in which she prophesied wars and anarchy. Their falsehood he censures in the following manner: And has not this been shown clearly to be false?
For it is today more than thirteen years since the woman died, and there has been neither a partial nor general war in the world; but rather, through the mercy of Godcontinued peace even to the Christians. These things are taken from the second book. I will add also short extracts from the third book, in which he speaks thus against their boasts that many of them had suffered martyrdom: When therefore they are at a loss, being refuted in all that they say, they try to take refuge in their martyrsalleging that they have many martyrsand that this is sure evidence of the power of the so-called prophetic spirit that is with them.
But this, as it appears, is entirely fallacious. For some of the heresies have a great many martyrs ; but surely we shall not on that account agree with them or confess that they hold the truth.
And first, indeed, those called Marcionites, from the heresy of Marcionsay that they have a multitude of martyrs for Christ; yet they do not confess Christ himself in truth. A little farther on he continues: When those called to martyrdom from the Church for the truth of the faith have met with any of the so-called martyrs of the Phrygian heresythey have separated from them, and died without any fellowship with them, because they did not wish to give their assent to the spirit of Montanus and the women.
Miltiades and His Works. In this work he mentions a writer, Miltiades, stating that he also wrote a certain book against the above-mentioned heresy. After quoting some of their words, he adds: Having found these things in a certain work of theirs in opposition to the work of the brother Alcibiades, in which he shows that a prophet ought not to speak in ecstasyI made an abridgment.
A little further on in the same work he gives a list of those who prophesied under the new covenant, among whom he enumerates a certain Ammia and Quadratussaying: But the false prophet falls into an ecstasyin which he is without shame or fear.
Beginning with purposed ignorancehe passes on, as has been stated, to involuntary madness of soul. They cannot show that one of the old or one of the new prophets was thus carried away in spirit. Neither can they boast of Agabusor Judas, or Silas, or the daughters of Philip, or Ammia in Philadelphiaor Quadratusor any others not belonging to them. And again after a little he says: For if after Quadratus and Ammia in Philadelphiaas they assert, the women with Montanus received the prophetic gift, let them show who among them received it from Montanus and the women.
For the apostle thought it necessary that the prophetic gift should continue in all the Church until the final coming. But they cannot show it, though this is the fourteenth year since the death of Maximilla. But the Miltiades to whom he refers has left other monuments of his own zeal for the Divine Scripturesin the discourses which he composed against the Greeks and against the Jewsanswering each of them separately in two books.
And in addition he addresses an apology to the earthly rulers, in behalf of the philosophy which he embraced. As the so-called Phrygian heresy was still flourishing in Phrygia in his time, Apollonius also, an ecclesiastical writer, undertook its refutation, and wrote a special work against it, correcting in detail the false prophecies current among them and reproving the life of the founders of the heresy.
But hear his own words respecting Montanus: His actions and his teaching show who this new teacher is. This is he who taught the dissolution of marriage; who made laws for fasting ; who named Pepuza and Tymion, small towns in Phrygia, Jerusalem, wishing to gather people to them from all directions; who appointed collectors of money; who contrived the receiving of gifts under the name of offerings; who provided salaries for those who preached his doctrine, that its teaching might prevail through gluttony.
He writes thus concerning Montanus ; and a little farther on he writes as follows concerning his prophetesses: We show that these first prophetesses themselves, as soon as they were filled with the Spiritabandoned their husbands.
How falsely therefore they speak who call Prisca a virgin. Does not all Scripture seem to you to forbid a prophet to receive gifts and money? When therefore I see the prophetess receiving gold and silver and costly garments, how can I avoid reproving her? And again a little farther on he speaks thus concerning one of their confessors: So also Themiso, who was clothed with plausible covetousnesscould not endure the sign of confession, but threw aside bonds for an abundance of possessions.
Yet, though he should have been humble on this account, he dared to boast as a martyrand in imitation of the apostle, he wrote a certain catholic epistle, to instruct those whose faith was better than his own, contending for words of empty sound, and blaspheming against the Lord and the apostles and the holy Church.
And again concerning others of those honored among them as martyrshe writes as follows: Not to speak of many, let the prophetess herself tell us of Alexander, who called himself a martyrwith whom she is in the habit of banqueting, and who is worshipped by many.
We need not mention his robberies and other daring deeds for which he was punished, but the archives contain them. Which of these forgives the sins of the other? Does the prophet the robberies of the martyror the martyr the covetousness of the prophet? For we will show that those whom they call prophets and martyrs gather their gain not only from rich men, but also from the poorand orphansand widows. But if they are confident, let them stand up and discuss these matters, that if convicted they may hereafter cease transgressing.
For the fruits of the prophet must be tried; 'for the tree is known by its fruit. Afterwards, having falsely declared for the name of the Lord, he was released, having deceived the faithful that were there. And his own parish, from which he came, did not receive him, because he was a robber. Those who wish to learn about him have the public records of Asia.
And yet the prophet with whom he spent many years knows nothing about him! Exposing him, through him we expose also the pretense of the prophet. We could show the same thing of many others.
But if they are confident, let them endure the test. Again, in another part of his work he speaks as follows of the prophets of whom they boast: If they deny that their prophets have received gifts, let them acknowledge this: And we will bring a multitude of proofs of this.
But it is necessary that all the fruits of a prophet should be examined. Tell me, does a prophet dye his hair? Does a prophet stain his eyelids? Does a prophet delight in adornment? Does a prophet play with tables and dice? Does a prophet lend on usury? Let them confess whether these things are lawful or not; but I will show that they have been done by them.
This same Apollonius states in the same work that, at the time of his writing, it was the fortieth year since Montanus had begun his pretended prophecy. And he says also that Zoticus, who was mentioned by the former writer, when Maximilla was pretending to prophesy in Pepuza, resisted her and endeavored to refute the spirit that was working in her; but was prevented by those who agreed with her.
He mentions also a certain Thraseas among the martyrs of that time. He speaks, moreover, of a tradition that the Saviour commanded his apostles not to depart from Jerusalem for twelve years. He uses testimonies also from the Revelation of John, and he relates that a dead man had, through the Divine power, been raised by John himself in Ephesus.
He also adds other things by which he fully and abundantly exposes the error of the heresy of which we have been speaking.