How to Become a Psychologist & Its Scope In India - MINDLER
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But, in all cultures a majority of the people can only represent the negative or lower levels of behavior — so to say, a vast majority become reflex victims of their own culture. Only a minority are the reflective, conscious representatives of the best in their culture, so to say the leadership. The codes are provided by religion, philosophy, and such other structures.
Moreover, some cultures are statistically oriented. That is to say, for them a person is in good mental health if he or she is like every other John or Jean in the neighborhood, of the same status. Economic self-sufficiency, capacity to take pleasure in occasional gossip, moderate addiction to alcohol, god and morals, is one norm. Christ and Gandhi become abnormals, fit subjects for sarcastic humor or polite patronage.
There is great fear of being different from your neighbor. Other cultures are idealistically oriented. Mental Health, then, becomes an ideal goal to strive for and to achieve. Computer-calculated averages of behavior do not call for emulation. Striving toward the ideal even at the risk of being different from the neighbor becomes praiseworthy even if unsuccessful.
Exhaustive Guide to Becoming a Psychologist and its Scope in India
The Indian culture pays attention to the ideal norm of its culture and striving toward that ideal is considered, by even the average person, as an important component of sound mental health.
The signs of good mental health; i the degree to which you have an inner sense of comfort in as many situations as possible is the measure of your mental health; ii the faces of your intimate associates are an index of your level of mental health. The more unhappy and tense they look, or the more happy and relaxed they look in your presence is the minus and plus of your store of mental health; iii your account may be very poor in the above two, but the degree and duration of your aspiration and effort to change for the better is the most positive index of the state of your mental health.
Each culture chooses its own areas of selectivity of perception and experience, and their own criteria of reality. Greater care is needed in using such words as superstition, hallucination, etc.
This approach to mental health from the early days of Independent India is an important contribution by India. Classification of mental disorders Another significant contribution of Indian Psychiatry has been in the area of classification. This is at two levels. First, is to share the Indian approach to the classification of mental disorders. Transcultural variations in the symptomatology of psychiatric disorders is now well known.
Historically, it is remarkable that Wig and Singh[ 11 ] presented an Indian psychiatric classification, calling attention to psychiatric conditions such as hysterical psychosis.
In the area of influencing international classification, the example of acute psychosis stands out as being very significant. They were either classified as reactive psychosis or as other psychoses. It is the persistent efforts of Indian psychiatrists and the generation of research data[ 1213 ] to support the separate clinical entity that led to the inclusion of acute psychosis as a separate category in the international classification.
I consider this to be the most important contribution of Indian psychiatry to global psychiatry. There are two aspects that have received attention, namely, the special nature of functioning of the family, and the role of the family in mental health care. Surya[ 78 ] describes the Indian family and its relationship to mental health, as follows: The parents do not have the explicit or implicit privilege of being the sole agents for structuring social relationships and regulations for the child; ii as the individual grows up he or she progresses through an unending series of dependency relationships, with a large kinship circle, although with varying degrees of intensity and duration.
There is no point of time at which one can look forward to a relatively free and full independent individual responsibility; iii marriage does not connote a landmark to the development of a fully independent unit. It marks the beginning of a new set of relationships — the recurring decimal of dependency relationships; iv the everlasting and ever-recurring dependency relationships are governed by concepts of inherited status.
In an average, large joint family what rightly belongs to one and does not is never clearly demarcated. Whether this was by choice or due to lack of facilities is difficult to conclude, although there is some evidence to support that family involvement in the care was, and continues to be a preference of families.
The first formal recognition of the importance of the family as part of organized mental healthcare can be traced to the work of Prof. Vidyasagar in the early period of post-independent India.
The next major experiment was initiated at the Mental Health Centere, C. A very important contribution to the involvement of the family in the community care of persons with mental disorders was made by Dr.
Shaila Pai, and Dr. It is widely believed that for an long time, we will not have adequate manpower of psychiatrists to handle the ever increasing number of emotionally sick individuals, hence, in planning or formulating our therapeutic intervention, we must keep the family and its role in view.
Vahia[ 10 ] in his Presidential address at Srinagar observed: The need for understanding the psychological origins of psychopathology has been addressed differently by Indian professionals. One of the earliest in this area was Dr. Girish Bose of Calcutta who corresponded with Sigmund Freud.
Perhaps one of the most original and significant parts of this article is Dr. There, unacceptable and unrecognized dependency longings become the focus of psychopathology and thelogy, and psychotherapy attempts to resolve these dependency needs in a manner satisfying the requirements of a culture that idealizes individual independence.
In the Hindu Indian environment, the ideal of maturity is, satisfying the continuous dependency, striving in a manner that satisfies the requirements of a culture that idealizes individual submergence in complex interdependence.
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A Western value judgment is unwittingly thrust on the people. There is no real equivalent word conveying the same value judgment. It would be hazardous to import this word dependency into the Indian psychotherapeutic scene.Dost4Date : Free online dating (Viewed by Latasa from Bangalore)
Integration of personality functions is the Western aim. But some degree of dissociation and ideally a detachment of the higher from the lower functions is the ideal. I can only watch — or I do not mind. The witness function of the Ego, emphasized by the Hindu thought is an important step in psychotherapy. Ours is a complex civilization. Mere cataloging of the numerous characteristics of our people from trait questionnaires drawn up in the west will give a very contradictory and distorted picture.
The Kiplingisque importunate, docile, dependent untrustworthy Indian and the firm, gentle, but stern and unflinching Gandhian, Indian are two facets of the same coin. Bhagawad Gita is one of the most translated religious classics in the world. The beauty and sublimity of this work, the eternal relevance to the problems of human life, and its universal approach that helps to consider the whole creation as one are the special features of this important text.
The methods used by Lord Krishna to help his disciple Arjuna in the situation of war is considered by many to contain the best principles of psychotherapy. Reddy[ 25 ] relates Gita with psychoanalysis as follows. Jeste and Vahia[ 26 ] have compared the conceptualization of wisdom in ancient Indian literature with the modern views with a focus on the Bhagawad Gita. Information is available from the scriptures,[ 2728 ] personal experiences,[ 2 ] and research studies. There were also a number of studies on the various aspects of Transcendental Meditation and its physiological effects.
The more recent studies have examined the effectiveness of specific treatments based on Sudarshan Kriya Yoga SKY in dysthymia, depression, schizophrenia, and drug and alcohol dependence. The increased interest in eastern therapies and the availability of measures to study the effects should result in more sophisticated studies on the effectiveness of the different therapies in different mental disorders.
There is also a re-examination of ancient Indian wisdom to modern mental health practice. As a consequence, one of the running themes in the professional lives of this group of psychiatrists was the need to understand the nature of mental disorders in India. One of the important and early pioneers in this effort was Dr. Aroundhe viewed the importance as follows: But unfortunately, no reliable statistics bearing on this matter are available.
Neither the admission rates not the number of beds occupied in mental hospitals can be considered reliable indices of the actual number of patients suffering from mental disorders in the area served by these hospitals for the following reasons….
It was only a decade later that others took up this activity and completed some of the pioneering epidemiological studies. The first of this was by Dr.
Surya, into complete the first general population epidemiological study. This was soon followed by the historic mile stone of the Agra epidemiological study lead by Dr. The importance of the Agra study by Dr. Dube[ 38 ] can be gauged by the fact that till today, it continues to be the most important contribution in this field.
Soon, other leaders took up the study in other parts of the country. Other centers that took the lead further were the Vellore group,[ 42 ] the Calcutta group led by Dr.
The impact of the efforts of these pioneers was the recognition of the public importance of mental disorders in the country. I recall in my early days of psychiatric work in the s, the debates about the North—South differences in the prevalence and pattern of depression. Bhaskaran described the differing ways mental disorders presented in the Indian population.
The role of culture in depression was described by Venkoba Rao,[ 46 ] following a study of a group of patients with depression as follows: This series of studies to understand the course and outcome was very important as they provided new insights such as better prognosis in schizophrenia in India.
The contribution of Prof. Community care of mentally ill persons This is an area of concern among Indian psychiatrists during the last 60 years, as they were acutely aware of the wide gap between the needs and the resources available. For this purpose, the psychiatrists from the mental hospitals will have to come out of the hospitals and provide out-patient treatment facilities. Even that is not enough, as many mental hospitals are away from the cities and towns, and as it is difficult for the patients to go there, the psychiatrists will have to come out of their ivory tower and work in general hospitals by developing out-patient and in-patient treatment facilities for children and adults.
He called for a number of interventions to address the needs of patients. Such institutions should ever be built in future emphasis added. There is enough convincing evidence to show that schizophrenic patients of all types and stages of illness can be successfully treated in smaller, open institutions situated more centrally in the community.
To really convince the average man of the treatability and returnability of the mentally ill person to the community as a useful citizen, one must show concrete results and we have not even made an effort in this direction in our country, and this only underscores the need for immediate and energetic rehabilitation of the more chronic patients.
Satyanand started one of the first studies on community psychiatry where a team from AIIMS, New Delhi, was going regularly to a rural center in Ballabhgarth. Sethi[ 54 ] in an Indian Journal of Psychiatry, editorial called for action in this area as follows: The central idea was described by the professionals as an integration of mental health with general health services. This initiative, initially started at the Chandigarh and Bangalore centers,[ 565759 ] has resulted in a significant difference in mental health planning in India during the last three decades.
From the initial studies of the s involving small population units of about 50, today it covers over districts in the country. There are many medical texts dating back to the first and second century AD, which describe in detail the principles of Ayurveda. The two best known medical works are by the Ayurvedic physicians Charaka and Sushrutha.
These books were originally compiled sometime between the third century BC and third century A. The principles of Ayurvedic medicine, like in other Indian philosophical systems, were probably well developed by third century BC.
Dube[ 6263 ] has systematically examined the nosology and therapy of mental illness in Ayurveda by comparing the clinical conditions described in Ayurveda with the clinical conditions described in the International Classification of Diseases.
Other forms of therapies mentioned are herbal, physical, and natural. Treatments were administered with benediction. Man was treated as a whole with a psychosomatic approach. The therapeutic measures for insanities varied from words of sympathy and comfort to terrorizing by means of snakes, from purgation to venesection. The other measures were purification procedures by emetics and diaphoretics. If they were of no avail, ocular and nasal instillations with medicated ghee were recommended.
In some instances of disoriented mind such measures as anointing with mustard oil, exposure to sunlight, branding with hot irons, or scourging with a whip were recommended. Terrorizing by snakes whose fangs had been removed or by trained elephants or lions, or by men dressed as bandits or men with weapons, and intimidation with threats of immediate execution were employed when all other measures had failed on the plea that threat of life is more patent than fear of bodily injury.
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Rowalfia serpentina was a popular drug for insanity in ancient India. However, two aspects stand out as needs for the future. First, there is a need for greater focused and in-depth examination of the areas identified and worked upon by psychiatrists. As noted in the beginning of the article, Indian psychiatry has interacted with global psychiatry by both contributing and benefiting from world psychiatry.
This two-way process will be an ongoing activity in the coming years. Reviewing the developments, two other thoughts are worth reflecting on. There is need for Indian psychiatry to go beyond sitting on the richness of ancient wisdom. This was noted by Prof. Nevertheless, to be satisfied with the glory of the past is to turn into a fossil; but to interpret the old from a new point of view is to revitalize the past and bring in a current of fresh air into the monotonous present.
Another aspect calling for greater effort from Indian psychiatrists, toward influencing world psychiatry, is the need for greater research into the Indian concepts and practices.
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