Greek Civil War - Wikipedia
The Greek community in the United Kingdom refers to British residents and citizens of full or Mycenaean bronze double axes and other objects (Rillaton Barrow, Pelynt Dagger) dating from the thirteenth century BC have been found in Ireland and in . A number of Greeks now occupied prominent positions in London life. The extent, lowever, of the time that was occupied by the first four revolutions of of copyists, and we think the Greek date of Lamech's age at the birth of Noah. Find Meetups in London, England about Greek Singles and meet people in your local community who share your interests.
He reported its name as Prettanike and Brettaniai, for Britain and the British islands nesoiwhich became Britannia, it is assumed that its Hellenised version was under Diodorus.
It may have been used by some of the local peoples where Pytheas landed to themselves -Pretani. Roman period[ edit ] Many Greeks later arrived with the Roman legions as soldiers and traders, and their presence is attested by inscriptions on curse tablets gravestones and dedicatory tablets in both Greek and Latin displayed in the Museum of London and elsewhere, including: Seventy years old, a native of Athens, he lies here.
I give you my greetings, lad, though mortal the path of life you slowly tread, for swiftly have you winged your way to the land of the Cimmerian folk. Nor will your words be false, for the lad is good, and you will do him a good service. A Greek presence in London was recorded with the two brothers, Andronikos and Alexios Effomatos — described in contemporary records as "Grekes" — who were known to have been resident in London in They were from Constantinoplethe capital of Byzantium.
They made a costly type of thread in which thin strands of gold were intertwined with silk, and which was then used in expensive luxury fabrics and in sacerdotal vestments, a craft for which Constantinople had been famous in its heyday. Thanks to this royal grant, the brothers remained in London for many years.
Andronikos, the elder, died in aboutbut Alexios was still there inover forty years after his first arrival. Indeed, he followed as a non-combatant an English invasion of Scotland where the English forces included Greeks from Argos under the leadership of Thomas of Argos whose 'Courage, and prudence, and experience of wars' was lauded by the Corfiot traveller.
A notable Rhodian was the merchant Franciscos Galiardis. A few individuals settled permanently, such as a native of Rhodes called Konstantinos Benetos, who was recorded as living in Clerkenwell between and Hitler speaking to his Commanders-in-Chief  Britain was obliged to assist Greece by the Declaration ofwhich stated that in the event of a threat to Greek or Romanian independence, "His Majesty's Government would feel themselves bound at once to lend the Greek or Romanian Government The British were reluctant to discuss Metaxas' proposal, because the troops necessary for implementing the Greek plan would seriously endanger operations in North Africa.
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The British responded that all they could offer was the immediate dispatch of a token force of less than divisional strength. This offer was rejected by the Greeks, who feared that the arrival of such a contingent would precipitate a German attack without giving them meaningful assistance.
If we had we should have felt more confidence in the success of our policy. We should have seen that he risked falling between two stools and might easily impair his supreme undertaking for the sake of a Balkan preliminary. This is what actually happened, but we could not know that at the time. Some may think we builded rightly; at least we builded better than we knew at the time. It was our aim to animate and combine Yugoslavia, Greece and Turkey.
Our duty so far as possible was to aid the Greeks.
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Winston Churchill  Little more than a month later, the British reconsidered. At the same time, the Bulgarian Army mobilised and took up positions along the Greek frontier. Two invasion courses were located west of Kyustendil ; another was along the Yugoslav-Bulgarian border, via the Struma river valley to the south.
Greek border fortifications had been adapted for the terrain and a formidable defence system covered the few available roads. The Struma and Nestos rivers cut across the mountain range along the Greek-Bulgarian frontier and both of their valleys were protected by strong fortifications, as part of the larger Metaxas Line. This system of concrete pillboxes and field fortifications, constructed along the Bulgarian border in the late s, was built on principles similar to those of the Maginot Line.
Its strength resided mainly in the inaccessibility of the intermediate terrain leading up to the defence positions. On 8 Januaryhe stated that "there was no other course open to us but to make certain that we had spared no effort to help the Greeks who had shown themselves so worthy. Air power was required to protect defending ground forces from entrapment in the many defiles.
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Although an invading force from Albania could be stopped by a relatively small number of troops positioned in the high Pindus mountains, the northeastern part of the country was difficult to defend against an attack from the north. Papagos awaited clarification from the Yugoslav government and later proposed to hold the Metaxas Line —by then a symbol of national security to the Greek populace—and not withdraw divisions from Albania.
The strategically important port of Thessaloniki lay practically undefended and transportation of British troops to the city remained dangerous.
General Dill described Papagos' attitude as "unaccommodating and defeatist" and argued that his plan ignored the fact that Greek troops and artillery were capable of only token resistance.
On 4 March, Dill accepted the plans for the Metaxas line and on 7 March agreement was ratified by the British Cabinet.
Instead, he took a position some 40 miles 64 kilometres west of the Axios, across the Haliacmon Line. This had the advantage of requiring a smaller force than other options, while allowing more preparation time, but it meant abandoning nearly the whole of Northern Greece, which was unacceptable to the Greeks for political and psychological reasons. The line's left flank was susceptible to flanking from Germans operating through the Monastir Gap in Yugoslavia. Their effectiveness was confirmed during the invasion of Yugoslavia.
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The German command again coupled ground troops and armour with air support and rapidly drove into the territory. Once Thessaloniki was captured, Athens and the port of Piraeus became principal targets. The Yugoslav troops were not fully mobilised and lacked adequate equipment and weapons. Following the entry of German forces into Bulgaria, the majority of Greek troops were evacuated from Western Thrace.