Hip-hop feminism - Wikipedia
Nov 26, Being a female rap fan is generally joyous and good. I once went on a date with a (white) dude who asked me to reconcile my feminism with. Sep 10, To date, no large-scale content analysis has been conducted exclusively on this defining era of women's rap music. In this paper, I analyze the. Jul 11, Here are five new female rappers NOT named Nicki Minaj (finally). Together these artists gave the culture feminist anthems like "U.N.I.T.Y.," . As of now there is no definitive date on the album release, all we have to go on.
This trend can be seen through the plethora of stories of rappers in the news committing unethical crimes. Another instance in which the public places more focus on a rappers musical success over their moral obligation is in the instance of R.
Kelly was and still is a predator. Despite this, his songs are still played at family weddings and at the end of mediocre student nights and no one seems to blink twice.
These stories of Kelly are normalized by the media, in favor of covering his topchart songs.
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Why Is the industry failing to challenge rappers like Kelly and Chapelle? While the men are praised in the public sphere, their victims are often accused of lying and exaggerating.
We routinely ignore the voices of women, especially black women, when they come forward to talk about sexual violence. When we do this in such a public light, what message are we giving to men?
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Essentially, it is this: However, what is more worrisome is that as a misogynistic society, we are ingraining the concept that disrespectful lyrics are what frame success. Kanye and Drake have heavily problematic lyrics and themes in their songs. And, they are very popular with women. Men and women have to demand more from our artists. When we support them we are endorsing their misogyny. Why is hip hop still lagging behind on the feminist front?
As more and more rap gets slammed for being sexist, research into other music genres has started to take place. Rap music has a reputation for being misogynistic, but surprisingly little research has systematically investigated this dimension of the music. Weitzer conducted a study that assessed the portrayal of women in a representative sample of rap songs.
This analysis situates rap music within the context of larger cultural and music industry norms and the local, neighborhood conditions that inspired this music in the first place. Its content analyzes the subversive prevalence of rap in our culture, and its effects on both adolescent men and women. There is an obvious relationship between art and society.
Art not only mirrors and amplifies social norms, but it also influences society while being a product of society. Essentially, art and society influence each other in once vicious cycle. Even nice-guy rappers such as Drake will rap about the exploitation of women Weitzer. Another study conducted by a researcher at Michigan University revealed that Rap and hip-hop get much more attention in popular media for being sexist than do genres such as country and rock. Six genres used were rap, hip-hop, country, rock, alternative, and dance.
The five themes used are portrayal of women in traditional gender roles, portrayal of women as inferior to men, portrayal of women as objects, portrayal of women as stereotypes, and portrayal of violence against women. Each instance of sexism is also classified as benevolent, ambivalent, or hostile sexism.
She then used the results to determine whether or not other genres are as sexist as hip-hop and rap. Possible reasons for differing levels of sexism as well as potential social implications of sexism in music again, go back to what the crowd wants Neff.
It seems that it is generally accepted that although lyrics in rap are incredible disrespectful, it is the job of the listeners to separate the art from the artist. Their purpose is to produce art, not be role models. Conversely, this cult-like following enables the artists to engage in further acts of sexual harassment, domestic violence, and rape.
Their rise on the charts only reinforces the wider problem of misogyny and rape culture. It also diminishes hope for any help that these victims may receive. They floss their possessions: They have everything a boy could ever want. But a human is not property, regardless of gender. As centuries go on, the world is constantly evolving to better itself and the individuals in it.
Feminist theory, no matter the time period, exists to expose all the ways that our governmental institutions such as laws, businesses, and education perpetuate sexism. Although they all differ in their treatment and views of the system, as the three waves of feminism have evolved, the system itself has also adapted its existence in response to the three waves Peoples. As females, we are taught by society and the media, that good-mannered girls apologize. In mainstream hip hop, the reinforcement of masculinity and adherence to heterosexuality manifests itself in the form of homophobiaparticularly in the mainstream.
Blye Frank points out that gender obedience in coherence with heterosexuality and masculinity is a social product which is embedded in people's everyday lives. Frank claims that part of this gender obedience is expressed in the form of competition among men, which then often appears in the form of homophobia, discrimination and violence against men.
The use of homophobia in hip hop is then used as a tool to emphasize one's own masculinity and power. Terence Kumpf claims that gender and sex norms are recreated and reinforced in mainstream rap, while mainstream rap also uses homophobic and transphobic attitudes and lyrics to sell records.
Lyrical outting is a practice where MC's 'attack' another artist who is not queer or not openly queer, yet 'out' them by calling them gay or exposing them through the lyrics of a song or rap. In addition to the way that lyrical outting maintains the mainstream narrative of heterosexuality in hip hop; Lamont Hill also claims that it is proof that queer identities do not comfortably fit into the hip hop world. The homophobia in Hip-Hop is situated in the larger world as well and therefore, homophobia is not exclusive to Hip-Hop and is a reflection of the larger society.
Aand Kevin Abstract are Hip-Hop artists that are bringing queer identity to the forefront of popular music. He continues to work with mainstream artists such as Rae Sremmurd and Santigold.
Tyler, the Creator is a contradictory representation of both homophobia and queerness in Hip-Hop. There has been controversy surrounding his sexuality because he has been largely accused of aggressive homophobia in his previous lyrics.
In one particular lyric to a song released inhe raps, "come take a stab at it faggot, I pre-ordered your casket. Along with the release of the merchandise, he released a photo of him and another man holding hands wearing the Pride T-shirts on his Tumblr blog. Ocean's bisexual identity is one that he both subtly and not-so-subtly discusses through his music.
In a July emotional letter posted as a tumblr screenshot on his blog, he reveals that he was involved in a relationship with a boy, which was well received by the larger Hip-Hop community  In his song "Chanel" he points towards his bisexuality in the following lines: I see both sides like Chanel. He conveys a subtle gender queerness that is not often talked about in Hip-Hop culture and challenges the hypermasculinity in Hip-Hop. These lines also further show his homosexuality and interest in men by claiming the guy he's talking about as his, using the metaphor of the Chanel symbol to discuss the duality in gender expression as well as his bisexuality.
A is a queer female artist that displays feminism in hip hop by challenging gender norms with her music, appearance, and behavior. A talks about her childhood and how she identified more with masculinity than with femininity. She used to play football and would cut the hair off of her Barbie Dolls in attempt to make them look more like boys.
She also mentioned how it was difficult to come out at first, especially to her mother. Even when she first started getting noticed for her rapping, she agreed to rap about boys and even wear a dress if necessary.
Yet, she never did this. She mentions how none of that was her; she wasn't that type of person so she wasn't going to pretend to be it. A brings awareness to the queer community and the complexity of gender. Macklemorewhose real name is Ben Haggerty, is a white, straight rapper that created one of hip hop's first mainstream anthems "Same Love" bringing attention to homophobia not only just in hip hop but across the world.
Macklemore is from Seattle, Washington where politics are more liberal leaning. He was featured in OUT magazine where he talked about his upbringing. He states "Where I grew up, there were huge gay pride parades less than a mile away from me," Macklemore says. My barber was gay. My uncles owned this restaurant that was a huge magnet for the gay community.
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My whole upbringing was around gay people. Macklemore has been accused of appropriation from both the Black community and the gay community but he says that the song is about equality.
Although homophobia is a significant part of Hip Hop, people within this music industry are doing what they can to combat that and instead being advocates for the queer community within Hip Hop. These women show society that they aren't afraid to push buttons and act not according to gender roles expected of them. Being women that don't look like "traditional females" in society, they are breaking boundaries and leading the way for other people to do what they love whether it's getting involved with Hip Hop or not.
We see with Las Krudas, that empowerment we feel within our bodies is so important to how the world views us and how our actions affect other people. Because the women in Las Krudas appear comfortable in their own skin and confident doing what they do which is breaking boundariesthis advocates for other people in the queer community to not be afraid to be themselves and get out their and accomplish their goals.
Las Krudas encourages queer women and queer people alike to not let patriarchal systems and discrimination hold them back from doing what they love. Especially in Hip Hop, you think of women as the video girl or the side chick but really, women have so much more potential than that and society needs to recognize that image isn't the only image available for a woman in Hip Hop. Marc Lamont Hill writes about the homophobia in hip-hop as something deeply layered. Lamont Hill notes that although there has been queer presence in hip-hop from the beginning, homophobia in mainstream hip-hip has sustained hyper masculinity.
One of the most evident ways heterosexuality and homophobia is so embedded in hip-hop culture is the absence of queer artists in mainstream hip-hop. Within hip-hop culture, there is a practice called the politics of outing which is referring to when an artists outs another artists sexuality. The practice of outing comes in various forms such as in lyrics and name calling. Outing someone in hip-hop reinforces notion of heterosexuality and homophobia.
While there is a strong presence of homophobia in hip-hop, there is an entire community within hip-hop known as the "homo-thug" which has helped bring queer individuals together. Overall, within hip-hop, there is a complex contradiction.
Hip-Hop Feminist Scholars[ edit ] As hip-hop feminism has garnered a reputation as a legitimate area of study, numerous individuals have contributed to its body of scholarly work. Joan Morganas previously mentioned, was the first to use the term "hip-hop feminist" in her book When Chickenheads Come Home to Roost. Black feminism and Hip-Hop feminism is greatly attributed to her works. Seth Cosimini's analysis of the performativity and self-presentation of Nicki Minaj articulates how women in hip-hop culture may simultaneously challenge and conform to stereotypical representations of femininity.
As explained by Cosimini, Minaj uses contradictory public personas in order to construct a hip-hop identity that recognizes the social oppression driven by race, gender, and sexuality within and beyond hip-hop culture. Murali Balaji has contributed to existing research on the roles of " video vixens " in hip-hop. Balaji argues that hip-hop music video models have the opportunity to utilize a sense of agency in order to negotiate their positions within hip-hop culture.
Through an analysis of Melyssa Ford 's music video career, Balaji highlights how it is possible for women in hip-hop to harness their sexuality as a form of political resistance. By way of carefully calculated self-presentation, video vixens are given the chance to subvert objectification and benefit from their own commodification. Belle acknowledges how diverse representations of Black men within hip-hop culture work to both subvert and uphold white-supremacist hetero-patriarchal meanings surrounding Black masculinity.
Belle's contributions to hip-hop feminist scholarship reveal how it is possible for mainstream hip-hop artists to profit from their adherence to oppressive social stereotypes, while those artists who challenge such stereotypes benefit from the destabilization of social expectations. He critiques traditions in hip hop culture, highlighting black masculinity and how this masculinity is performed in hip hop.
Rabaka claims that critical scholarly inquiry can be applied to the hip hop movement. When understanding political and social activism, Rabaka says that the contributions of hip-hop must be considered. In many of her publications,  Saunders attempts to vocalize the need for greater connectivity between black mobilization in the United States and similar mobilization in the Global South, specifically Latin America and the Caribbean.
She also uses the word "artivism," which merges "artist" and "activist," in an argument stating that feminists in nations such as Cuba  and Brazil, where hip-hop feminism is present, are not given enough credit for the agency and resistance that emerges from their art.
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Saunders urges hip-hop feminists in the United States to recognize their privilege as a referent for activist movements, and the power, privilege and responsibility that comes with living in a global hegemon. She also stresses that without a transnational outreach that breaches language and geopolitical barriers, American hip-hop feminist praxis will, in fact, be limited. Jenell Navarro attained her Ph. Through her article, Solarize-ing Native hip-hop: Native feminist land ethics and cultural resistance", she looks at the cultural resistance between the native American community and the black community.
She draws parallels to both groups, even though they are culturally different.
Navarro emphasizes that both communities, need to join forces to ward off the negativity that colonization has brought forth to this world. Navarro explains that native feminist is important to examine because it challenges the norm of land being gendered, and these type of conversation must take place because it address history that is written down as valid truth. With an epistemological approach, Durham cites her own experiences in hip-hop, touching on how the black female body is sexualized and policed within the hip-hop industry.
Her work examines how black women in hip hop are depicted and challenges media representations and objectification. She emphasizes that through hip-hop, artists communicate with other artists, the public and the media.
Raimist is a member of the Crunk Feminist Collective sincethe Crunks are a collective of feminist activists, scholars, and, artists. Raimist earned her B. A degree in Directing, but she also earned her M. Being able to teach and the love for storytelling and cameras gave students the accessibility to learn about filming and the roles of females behind the scenes through her. Her research help train females get comfortable with cameras and comfortable getting into the entertainment industry.